Listing Affordances

Index table for Affordances
Output Feature Notes Actions
Braille Displays

The math appears on a braille display.

Braille Editing
Braille Focus Highlighting

Displays the full equation, but highlights a specific portion of the equation.

For example, the full equation, (x+3)/(y-9), would be available, but dots 7 and 8 would be raised to place emphasis on a particular portion of the equation, such as (x+3). This is different from Braille-Navigation, which only displays the portion of the equation being navigated.

Braille Input
Braille Navigation

Reflects only the portion of the equation that is being navigated.

For example, in the equation, (x+3)/(y-9), a user could navigate to the (x+3) portion and that would be the only part that displays. This is different from Braille-Focus Highlighting, which displays the full equation, but emphasizes the portion being navigated with additional notation.

Speech Editing
Speech Input
Speech Navigation

Voices (or reads aloud) only the portion of the equation that is being navigated.

Speech Prosody

Pauses are used to indicate groupings or functions, which help convey the meaning of mathematics.

For example, (x+3)/(y-9)+5 would be read: "x plus three over y minus nine" with a slight pause before "plus five" to indicate the separate portions of the equation.

Speech Reads

The math is voiced by a screen reader.

Speech Sound Effects

Sounds are used to help convey meaning and explain the mathematics.

For example, higher and lower pitches might be applied to superscripts and subscripts to help indicate the relative position. Other examples of sound effects that might be applied to math expressions could be a "ding," "beep," or another tonal indicator that denotes the start and/or end of a particular function.

Visual Displays

The math appears, or is rendered, visually.

Visual Editing
Visual Focus Highlighting

Displays the full equation, but is accompanied by a visual queue that highlights a specific character or portion of the equation.

For example, the full equation, (x+3)/(y-9), would be available, but to place emphasis on a particular portion of the equation, such as (x+3), it would be highlighted. This is different from Visual-Navigation, which only displays the portion of the equation being navigated.

Visual Input
Visual Zoom (Magnification)

Only reflects the portion of the equation that is being navigated and presents it in magnified form.

For example, in the equation, (x+3)/(y-9), a user who zooms in on (x+3) would only see that portion of the equation and in much larger form. This is different from Visual-Focus Highlighting, which displays the full equation, but only highlights the portion being navigated.